Spinal injections are medical procedures that involve injecting medication or other substances directly into the spinal region to alleviate pain and inflammation. These injections can be beneficial for various spine-related conditions and are often considered as a non-surgical treatment option. In this comprehensive guide, we will discuss the different types of spinal injections, how they work, what to expect during the procedure, possible risks and complications, and answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs). The aim is to present this information in simple terms so that anyone, even without a medical background, can understand it.

What is a Spinal Injection?

A spinal injection is a medical procedure where a specialized physician, usually a pain management specialist or an anesthesiologist, delivers medication or other substances directly into the spinal canal, epidural space, or specific nerve roots to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, or diagnose certain conditions. The procedure is commonly used to manage various spine-related problems without the need for surgery.

Types of Spinal Injections:

There are different types of spinal injections, each targeting specific areas of the spine. The most common types include:

  1. Epidural Steroid Injection (ESI): This injection delivers corticosteroid medication into the epidural space around the spinal cord and nerve roots to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
  2. Facet Joint Injection: Facet joints are small joints in the spine responsible for stability and flexibility. Injections into these joints can reduce pain caused by inflammation or degenerative changes.
  3. Selective Nerve Root Block (SNRB): This injection targets a specific nerve root where pain is originating from and helps diagnose the source of pain.
  4. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA): RFA uses heat to destroy nerve fibers causing chronic pain, providing long-term relief.
  5. Discography: This diagnostic procedure involves injecting a contrast dye into spinal discs to identify the source of pain.

How do Spinal Injections Work?

Spinal injections work in various ways, depending on the type of injection. For example, epidural steroid injections reduce inflammation around nerves, providing pain relief. Facet joint injections block pain signals from small joints in the spine, alleviating discomfort. Selective nerve root blocks target specific nerves causing pain, helping doctors identify the source of the problem. Radiofrequency ablation interrupts pain signals from specific nerves, while discography helps diagnose disc-related issues.

When is a Spinal Injection Recommended?

Spinal injections are recommended when conservative treatments like rest, physical therapy, and oral medications have not adequately relieved pain caused by spinal conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or facet joint arthritis. It is essential to have a detailed evaluation and diagnosis by a qualified physician before considering injections.

The Procedure: What to Expect?

  1. a) Pre-procedure: Before the injection, the doctor will review your medical history, perform a physical examination, and may order imaging tests like X-rays or MRI to pinpoint the source of pain. You will also have the opportunity to ask any questions you may have.
  2. b) During the procedure: Spinal injections are usually performed on an outpatient basis. You will lie on your stomach or side, and the skin will be cleaned and numbed with local anesthesia. Under X-ray guidance (fluoroscopy), a needle is carefully inserted into the targeted area, and the medication is injected.
  3. c) Post-procedure: After the injection, you may be monitored for a short period. Most patients can go home the same day but should have someone drive them due to the effects of anesthesia. It is normal to experience some soreness at the injection site, which typically improves within a day or two.

Are Spinal Injections Painful?

The procedure is usually well-tolerated due to the use of local anesthesia. Patients may feel some pressure or discomfort as the needle is inserted, but the actual pain experienced during the injection is minimal.

Risks and Complications:

While spinal injections are generally safe, there are some potential risks and complications associated with the procedure. These may include infection, bleeding, nerve damage, allergic reactions to medication, and temporary increases in pain. However, serious complications are rare when performed by experienced professionals.

Recovery and Results:

After the injection, pain relief can vary among individuals. Some patients experience immediate relief, while others may take a few days or weeks to notice improvements. The effects of the injection are typically temporary and can last from a few weeks to several months. Repeat injections may be necessary for ongoing pain management.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1: Will the injection cure my spinal condition completely?

A: Spinal injections are not a cure, but they can provide significant pain relief and improve your ability to participate in physical therapy or other rehabilitative treatments.

Q2: Can I resume normal activities after the injection?

A: It is essential to follow your doctor’s advice regarding activity restrictions after the injection. While some activities may be allowed, you may need to avoid certain strenuous actions for a short time.

Q3: Are there any alternatives to spinal injections?

A: Yes, there are various alternative treatments for spine-related conditions, including physical therapy, chiropractic care, acupuncture, and oral medications. Your doctor will determine the best approach for your specific condition.

Q4: Are there any long-term side effects of spinal injections?

A: Long-term side effects are rare, but prolonged or frequent use of certain medications can have potential risks. Your doctor will assess your individual health and tailor the treatment accordingly to minimize any risks.

Q5: Can I have multiple injections if needed?

A: Yes, multiple injections may be recommended, depending on the effectiveness of the previous injections and the nature of your condition. However, your doctor will carefully consider the frequency of injections to ensure your safety.


Spinal injections can be valuable tools for managing spinal pain and related conditions without the need for surgery. By delivering medications directly to the affected area, these injections provide targeted relief and allow patients to participate in rehabilitative treatments effectively. While the procedure carries some risks, it is generally safe and well-tolerated when performed by experienced professionals. If you are experiencing persistent back pain or have been diagnosed with a spine-related issue, consult a qualified pain management specialist to discuss whether spinal injections may be an appropriate treatment option for you.

Dr. Priyesh Dhoke

Dr Priyesh Dhoke M.B.B.S., M.S. (Orthopaedics), F.A.O.S.(Australia) AO Spine...

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